图片 32

12-Mysql数据库—-多表查询

本节最首要:

一、多表连接查询:       #第一:外链接语法

一、介绍

  • 多表连接查询
  • 符合条件连接查询
  • 子查询

准备表

首先先打算表

  

图片 1图片 2

员工表和机构表

 

#建表
create table department(
id int,
name varchar(20) 
);

create table employee(
id int primary key auto_increment,
name varchar(20),
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male',
age int,
dep_id int
);

#插入数据
insert into department values
(200,'技术'),
(201,'人力资源'),
(202,'销售'),
(203,'运营');

insert into employee(name,sex,age,dep_id) values
('egon','male',18,200),
('alex','female',48,201),
('wupeiqi','male',38,201),
('yuanhao','female',28,202),
('liwenzhou','male',18,200),
('jingliyang','female',18,204)
;


#查看表结构和数据
mysql> desc department;
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id | int(11) | YES | | NULL | |
| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+

mysql> desc employee;
+--------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+--------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id | int(11) | NO | PRI | NULL | auto_increment |
| name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| sex | enum('male','female') | NO | | male | |
| age | int(11) | YES | | NULL | |
| dep_id | int(11) | YES | | NULL | |
+--------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

mysql> select * from department;
+------+--------------+
| id | name |
+------+--------------+
| 200 | 技术 |
| 201 | 人力资源 |
| 202 | 销售 |
| 203 | 运营 |
+------+--------------+

mysql> select * from employee;
+----+------------+--------+------+--------+
| id | name | sex | age | dep_id |
+----+------------+--------+------+--------+
| 1 | egon | male | 18 | 200 |
| 2 | alex | female | 48 | 201 |
| 3 | wupeiqi | male | 38 | 201 |
| 4 | yuanhao | female | 28 | 202 |
| 5 | liwenzhou | male | 18 | 200 |
| 6 | jingliyang | female | 18 | 204 |
+----+------------+--------+------+--------+
#建表
create table department(
id int,
name varchar(20) 
);

create table employee1(
id int primary key auto_increment,
name varchar(20),
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male',
age int,
dep_id int
);

#插入数据
insert into department values
(200,'技术'),
(201,'人力资源'),
(202,'销售'),
(203,'运营');

insert into employee1(name,sex,age,dep_id) values
('egon','male',18,200),
('alex','female',48,201),
('wupeiqi','male',38,201),
('yuanhao','female',28,202),
('liwenzhou','male',18,200),
('jingliyang','female',18,204)
;

企图职业:打算两张表,部门表(department)、职员和工人表(employee)

View Code

查看表:

图片 3

1 .交叉连接:不适用其余相称原则(没意义)。生成笛Carl积

图片 4

create table department(
id int,
name varchar(20) 
);

create table employee(
id int primary key auto_increment,
name varchar(20),
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male',
age int,
dep_id int
);

#插入数据
insert into department values
(200,'技术'),
(201,'人力资源'),
(202,'销售'),
(203,'运营');

insert into employee(name,sex,age,dep_id) values
('egon','male',18,200),
('alex','female',48,201),
('wupeiqi','male',38,201),
('yuanhao','female',28,202),
('nvshen','male',18,200),
('xiaomage','female',18,204)
;

# 查看表结构和数据
mysql> desc department;
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id    | int(11)     | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| name  | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.19 sec)

mysql> desc employee;
+--------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field  | Type                  | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id     | int(11)               | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| name   | varchar(20)           | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| sex    | enum('male','female') | NO   |     | male    |                |
| age    | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| dep_id | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> select * from department;
+------+--------------+
| id   | name         |
+------+--------------+
|  200 | 技术         |
|  201 | 人力资源     |
|  202 | 销售         |
|  203 | 运营         |
+------+--------------+
4 rows in set (0.02 sec)

mysql> select * from employee;
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
| id | name     | sex    | age  | dep_id |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)
select * from department,employee;    #笛卡尔积

图片 5

图片 6

图片 7图片 8

二、多表连接查询

ps:观望两张表,发现department表中id=203单位在employee中从未对号入座的职员和工人,开掘employee中id=6的职工在department表中并未有对应涉及。

mysql> select * from employee,department;
+----+------------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
| id | name       | sex    | age  | dep_id | id   | name         |
+----+------------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
|  1 | egon       | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|  1 | egon       | male   |   18 |    200 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  1 | egon       | male   |   18 |    200 |  202 | 销售         |
|  1 | egon       | male   |   18 |    200 |  203 | 运营         |
|  2 | alex       | female |   48 |    201 |  200 | 技术         |
|  2 | alex       | female |   48 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  2 | alex       | female |   48 |    201 |  202 | 销售         |
|  2 | alex       | female |   48 |    201 |  203 | 运营         |
|  3 | wupeiqi    | male   |   38 |    201 |  200 | 技术         |
|  3 | wupeiqi    | male   |   38 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  3 | wupeiqi    | male   |   38 |    201 |  202 | 销售         |
|  3 | wupeiqi    | male   |   38 |    201 |  203 | 运营         |
|  4 | yuanhao    | female |   28 |    202 |  200 | 技术         |
|  4 | yuanhao    | female |   28 |    202 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  4 | yuanhao    | female |   28 |    202 |  202 | 销售         |
|  4 | yuanhao    | female |   28 |    202 |  203 | 运营         |
|  5 | liwenzhou  | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|  5 | liwenzhou  | male   |   18 |    200 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  5 | liwenzhou  | male   |   18 |    200 |  202 | 销售         |
|  5 | liwenzhou  | male   |   18 |    200 |  203 | 运营         |
|  6 | jingliyang | female |   18 |    204 |  200 | 技术         |
|  6 | jingliyang | female |   18 |    204 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  6 | jingliyang | female |   18 |    204 |  202 | 销售         |
|  6 | jingliyang | female |   18 |    204 |  203 | 运营         |
+----+------------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+

1.交叉连接:不适用其余相配原则。生成笛Carl积、

 

View Code

select * from employee1 ,department;

 

2.内链接(只连接匹配的行):遵照on条件只两张表的平等的部分,连接成一张设想的表
select * from employee inner join department on
department.id=employee.dep_id;
select * from department inner join employee on
department.id=employee.dep_id;
select * from employee,department where
department.id=employee.dep_id;
在内连接两张表的时候不推荐使用where,推荐 inner join,因为join on
在where在此以前施行

2.内再三再四:找两张表共有的有个别,也便是接纳规范从笛Carl积结果中筛选出了精确的结果。(只连接相称的行)

一、多表连接查询

两张表的备选工作已产生,比方现在自己要询问的职员和工人音信以及该职员和工人所在的机关。从该题中,我们看来既要查职员和工人又要查该职员和工人的机构,确定要将两张表进行连接查询,多表连接查询。

首要:外链接语法

语法:

SELECT 字段列表
    FROM 表1 INNER|LEFT|RIGHT JOIN 表2
    ON 表1.字段 = 表2.字段;

 

(1)先看率先种状态交叉连接:不适用其余相配原则。生成笛卡尔积(关于笛卡尔积的含义,大家百度机关补脑)。

图片 9

mysql> select * from employee,department;
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
| id | name     | sex    | age  | dep_id | id   | name         |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  202 | 销售         |
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  203 | 运营         |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  200 | 技术         |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  202 | 销售         |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  203 | 运营         |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  200 | 技术         |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  202 | 销售         |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  203 | 运营         |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  200 | 技术         |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  202 | 销售         |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  203 | 运营         |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  202 | 销售         |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  203 | 运营         |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |  200 | 技术         |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |  202 | 销售         |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |  203 | 运营         |

图片 10

 

(2)内延续:只连接相配的行

 

图片 11

#找两张表共有的部分,相当于利用条件从笛卡尔积结果中筛选出了匹配的结果
#department没有204这个部门,因而employee表中关于204这条员工信息没有匹配出来
mysql> select employee.id,employee.name,employee.age,employee.sex,department.name from employee inner join department on employee.dep_id=department.id;
+----+---------+------+--------+--------------+
| id | name    | age  | sex    | name         |
+----+---------+------+--------+--------------+
|  1 | egon    |   18 | male   | 技术         |
|  2 | alex    |   48 | female | 人力资源     |
|  3 | wupeiqi |   38 | male   | 人力资源     |
|  4 | yuanhao |   28 | female | 销售         |
|  5 | nvshen  |   18 | male   | 技术         |
+----+---------+------+--------+--------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

#上述sql等同于
mysql> select employee.id,employee.name,employee.age,employee.sex,department.name from employee,department where employee.dep_id=department.id;

图片 12

 

(3)外链接之左连接:优先彰显左表全体记下

图片 13

#以左表为准,即找出所有员工信息,当然包括没有部门的员工
#本质就是:在内连接的基础上增加左边有,右边没有的结果
mysql> select employee.id,employee.name,department.name as depart_name from employee left join department on employee.dep_id=department.id;
+----+----------+--------------+
| id | name     | depart_name  |
+----+----------+--------------+
|  1 | egon     | 技术         |
|  5 | nvshen   | 技术         |
|  2 | alex     | 人力资源     |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | 人力资源     |
|  4 | yuanhao  | 销售         |
|  6 | xiaomage | NULL         |
+----+----------+--------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

图片 14

(4) 外链接之右连接:优先彰显右表全体记下

图片 15

#以右表为准,即找出所有部门信息,包括没有员工的部门
#本质就是:在内连接的基础上增加右边有,左边没有的结果
mysql> select employee.id,employee.name,department.name as depart_name from employee right join department on employee.dep_id=department.id;
+------+---------+--------------+
| id   | name    | depart_name  |
+------+---------+--------------+
|    1 | egon    | 技术         |
|    2 | alex    | 人力资源     |
|    3 | wupeiqi | 人力资源     |
|    4 | yuanhao | 销售         |
|    5 | nvshen  | 技术         |
| NULL | NULL    | 运营         |
+------+---------+--------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

图片 16

 

(5) 全外连接:展现左右七个表全体记下(理解)

图片 17

#外连接:在内连接的基础上增加左边有右边没有的和右边有左边没有的结果
#注意:mysql不支持全外连接 full JOIN
#强调:mysql可以使用此种方式间接实现全外连接
语法:select * from employee left join department on employee.dep_id = department.id 
       union all
      select * from employee right join department on employee.dep_id = department.id;

 mysql> select * from employee left join department on employee.dep_id = department.id
          union
        select * from employee right join department on employee.dep_id = department.id
           ;
+------+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
| id   | name     | sex    | age  | dep_id | id   | name         |
+------+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
|    1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|    5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|    2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|    3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|    4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  202 | 销售         |
|    6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 | NULL | NULL         |
| NULL | NULL     | NULL   | NULL |   NULL |  203 | 运营         |
+------+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
7 rows in set (0.01 sec)

#注意 union与union all的区别:union会去掉相同的纪录

图片 18

 

 

图片 19图片 20

#找两张表共有的部分,相当于利用条件从笛卡尔积结果中筛选出了正确的结果
#department没有204这个部门,因而employee表中关于204这条员工信息没有匹配出来
select * from employee1,department where employee1.dep_id=department.id;

#上面用where表示的可以用下面的内连接表示,建议使用下面的那种方法
select * from employee1 inner join department on employee1.dep_id=department.id;

#也可以这样表示哈

select employee1.id,employee1.name,employee1.age,employee1.sex,department.name from 
employee1,department where employee1.dep_id=department.id;

二、符合条件连接查询

亲自过问1:以内连接的秘籍查询employee和department表,並且employee表中的age字段值必须越过25,即寻觅年龄大于二十七周岁的职工以及职员和工人所在的单位

select employee.name,department.name from employee inner join department
  on employee.dep_id = department.id
  where age > 25;

 

亲自过问2:以内连接的方法查询employee和department表,何况以age字段的升序格局展现。

select employee.id,employee.name,employee.age,department.name from employee,department
    where employee.dep_id = department.id
    and age > 25
    order by age asc;

 

mysql> select * from employee inner join department on department.id=employee.dep_id;
+----+-----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
| id | name      | sex    | age  | dep_id | id   | name         |
+----+-----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
|  1 | egon      | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|  2 | alex      | female |   48 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  3 | wupeiqi   | male   |   38 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  4 | yuanhao   | female |   28 |    202 |  202 | 销售         |
|  5 | liwenzhou | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
+----+-----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

 图片 21

三、子查询

#1:子查询是将一个查询语句嵌套在另一个查询语句中。
#2:内层查询语句的查询结果,可以为外层查询语句提供查询条件。
#3:子查询中可以包含:IN、NOT IN、ANY、ALL、EXISTS 和 NOT EXISTS等关键字
#4:还可以包含比较运算符:= 、 !=、> 、<等

 

例子:

(1)带in关键字的子查询

图片 22

#查询平均年龄在25岁以上的部门名
select id,name from department
    where id in 
        (select dep_id from employee group by dep_id having avg(age) > 25);
# 查看技术部员工姓名
select name from employee
    where dep_id in 
        (select id from department where name='技术');
#查看不足1人的部门名
select name from department
    where id not in 
        (select dep_id from employee group by dep_id);

图片 23

 

(2)带比较运算符的子查询

图片 24

#比较运算符:=、!=、>、>=、<、<=、<>
#查询大于所有人平均年龄的员工名与年龄
mysql> select name,age from employee where age > (select avg(age) from employee);
+---------+------+
| name    | age  |
+---------+------+
| alex    |   48 |
| wupeiqi |   38 |
+---------+------+

#查询大于部门内平均年龄的员工名、年龄
思路:
      (1)先对员工表(employee)中的人员分组(group by),查询出dep_id以及平均年龄。
       (2)将查出的结果作为临时表,再对根据临时表的dep_id和employee的dep_id作为筛选条件将employee表和临时表进行内连接。
       (3)最后再将employee员工的年龄是大于平均年龄的员工名字和年龄筛选。



mysql> select t1.name,t1.age from employee as t1
             inner join
            (select dep_id,avg(age) as avg_age from employee group by dep_id) as t2
            on t1.dep_id = t2.dep_id
            where t1.age > t2.avg_age;
+------+------+
| name | age  |
+------+------+
| alex |   48 |

图片 25

 

(3)带EXISTS关键字的子查询

图片 26

#EXISTS关字键字表示存在。在使用EXISTS关键字时,内层查询语句不返回查询的记录。而是返回一个真假值。True或False
#当返回True时,外层查询语句将进行查询;当返回值为False时,外层查询语句不进行查询
#department表中存在dept_id=203,Ture
mysql> select * from employee  where exists (select id from department where id=200);
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
| id | name     | sex    | age  | dep_id |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
#department表中存在dept_id=205,False
mysql> select * from employee  where exists (select id from department where id=204);
Empty set (0.00 sec)

图片 27

小练习:

询问每一种部门最新入职的那位职员和工人

图片 28

#创建表
create table employee(
id int not null unique auto_increment,
name varchar(20) not null,
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male', #大部分是男的
age int(3) unsigned not null default 28,
hire_date date not null,
post varchar(50),
post_comment varchar(100),
salary double(15,2),
office int, #一个部门一个屋子
depart_id int
);


#查看表结构
mysql> desc employee;
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field        | Type                  | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id           | int(11)               | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| name         | varchar(20)           | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| sex          | enum('male','female') | NO   |     | male    |                |
| age          | int(3) unsigned       | NO   |     | 28      |                |
| hire_date    | date                  | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| post         | varchar(50)           | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| post_comment | varchar(100)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| salary       | double(15,2)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| office       | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| depart_id    | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

#插入记录
#三个部门:教学,销售,运营
insert into employee(name,sex,age,hire_date,post,salary,office,depart_id) values
('egon','male',18,'20170301','老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使',7300.33,401,1), #以下是教学部
('alex','male',78,'20150302','teacher',1000000.31,401,1),
('wupeiqi','male',81,'20130305','teacher',8300,401,1),
('yuanhao','male',73,'20140701','teacher',3500,401,1),
('liwenzhou','male',28,'20121101','teacher',2100,401,1),
('jingliyang','female',18,'20110211','teacher',9000,401,1),
('jinxin','male',18,'19000301','teacher',30000,401,1),
('成龙','male',48,'20101111','teacher',10000,401,1),

('歪歪','female',48,'20150311','sale',3000.13,402,2),#以下是销售部门
('丫丫','female',38,'20101101','sale',2000.35,402,2),
('丁丁','female',18,'20110312','sale',1000.37,402,2),
('星星','female',18,'20160513','sale',3000.29,402,2),
('格格','female',28,'20170127','sale',4000.33,402,2),

('张野','male',28,'20160311','operation',10000.13,403,3), #以下是运营部门
('程咬金','male',18,'19970312','operation',20000,403,3),
('程咬银','female',18,'20130311','operation',19000,403,3),
('程咬铜','male',18,'20150411','operation',18000,403,3),
('程咬铁','female',18,'20140512','operation',17000,403,3)
;

图片 29

图片 30图片 31

select * from employee as t1
inner join
(select post,max(hire_date) as new_date from employee group by post) as t2
on t1.post=t2.post
where t1.hire_date=t2.new_date;

小演习答案

 

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细心:内连接的join能够忽略不写,但是依旧充足看起来清楚点

3.左链接(外链接之左连接:优先显示左表全部笔录):在规行矩步on的规范取到两张表共同部分的根底上,保留左表的笔录
select * from employee left join department on
department.id=employee.dep_id;

图片 32

图片 33图片 34

3.左总是:优先展现左表全体记下。