澳门金沙vip数据库中经常用到的操作和管理数据库的语句总结第1/2页

/* –整理者:永恒de影 –整理时间:2010/06/08 –内容:SQL函数的介绍:
*/ –★★SQL2000查询出各表字段的属性:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ SELECT 表名 =
case when a.colorder=1 then d.name else ” end, 表说明 = case when
a.colorder=1 then isnull(f.value,”) else ” end, 字段序号 = a.colorder,
字段名 = a.name, 标识 = case when COLUMNPROPERTY(
a.id,a.name,’IsIdentity’)=1 then ‘√’else ” end, 主键 = case when
exists(SELECT 1 FROM sysobjects where xtype=’PK’ and parent_obj=a.id
and name in ( SELECT name FROM sysindexes WHERE indid in( SELECT indid
FROM sysindexkeys WHERE id = a.id AND colid=a.colid))) then ‘√’ else ”
end, 类型 = b.name, 占用字节数 = a.length, 长度 =
COLUMNPROPERTY(a.id,a.name,’PRECISION’), 小数位数 =
isnull(COLUMNPROPERTY(a.id,a.name,’Scale’),0), 允许空 = case when
a.isnullable=1 then ‘√’else ” end, 默认值 = isnull(e.text,”), 字段说明
= isnull(g.[value],”) FROM syscolumns a left join systypes b on
a.xusertype=b.xusertype inner join sysobjects d on a.id=d.id and
d.xtype=’U’ and d.name’dtproperties’ left join syscomments e on
a.cdefault=e.id left join sysproperties g on a.id=g.id and
a.colid=g.smallid left join sysproperties f on d.id=f.id and f.smallid=0
where d.name=’要查询的表’ –如果只查询指定表,加上此条件 order by

——–sql2005版本

a.id,a.colorder –★★SQL2005查询出各表字段的属性:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ —

SELECT
TableName=CASE WHEN C.column_id=1 THEN O.name ELSE N” END,
TableDesc=ISNULL(CASE WHEN C.column_id=1 THEN PTB.[value] END,N”),
Column_id=C.column_id,
ColumnName=C.name,
PrimaryKey=ISNULL(IDX.PrimaryKey,N”),
[IDENTITY]=CASE WHEN C.is_identity=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END,
Computed=CASE WHEN C.is_computed=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END,
Type=T.name,
Length=C.max_length,
Precision=C.precision,
Scale=C.scale,
NullAble=CASE WHEN C.is_nullable=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END,
[Default]=ISNULL(D.definition,N”),
ColumnDesc=ISNULL(PFD.[value],N”),
IndexName=ISNULL(IDX.IndexName,N”),
IndexSort=ISNULL(IDX.Sort,N”),
Create_Date=O.Create_Date,
Modify_Date=O.Modify_date
FROM sys.columns C
INNER JOIN sys.objects O
ON C.[object_id]=O.[object_id]
AND O.type=’U’
AND O.is_ms_shipped=0
INNER JOIN sys.types T
ON C.user_type_id=T.user_type_id
LEFT JOIN sys.default_constraints D
ON C.[object_id]澳门金沙vip,=D.parent_object_id
AND C.column_id=D.parent_column_id
AND C.default_object_id=D.[object_id]
LEFT JOIN sys.extended_properties PFD
ON PFD.class=1
AND C.[object_id]=PFD.major_id
AND C.column_id=PFD.minor_id
— AND PFD.name=’Caption’ —
字段说明对应的描述名称(一个字段可以添加多个不同name的描述)
LEFT JOIN sys.extended_properties PTB
ON PTB.class=1
AND PTB.minor_id=0
AND C.[object_id]=PTB.major_id
— AND PFD.name=’Caption’ —
表说明对应的描述名称(一个表可以添加多个不同name的描述)
bitsCN.Com网管联盟

— 表结构信息查询 — 邹建 2005.08(引用请保留此信息) —

SELECT TableName=CASE WHEN C.column_id=1 THEN O.name ELSE N” END,
TableDesc=ISNULL(CASE WHEN C.column_id=1 THEN PTB.[value] END,N”),
Column_id=C.column_id, ColumnName=C.name,
PrimaryKey=ISNULL(IDX.PrimaryKey,N”), [IDENTITY]=CASE WHEN
C.is_identity=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END, Computed=CASE WHEN
C.is_computed=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END, Type=T.name,
Length=C.max_length, Precision=C.precision, Scale=C.scale,
NullAble=CASE WHEN C.is_nullable=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END,
[Default]=ISNULL(D.definition,N”),
ColumnDesc=ISNULL(PFD.[value],N”),
IndexName=ISNULL(IDX.IndexName,N”), IndexSort=ISNULL(IDX.Sort,N”),
Create_Date=O.Create_Date, Modify_Date=O.Modify_date FROM
sys.columns C INNER JOIN sys.objects O ON
C.[object_id]=O.[object_id] AND O.type=’U’ AND O.is_ms_shipped=0
INNER JOIN sys.types T ON C.user_type_id=T.user_type_id LEFT JOIN
sys.default_constraints D ON C.[object_id]=D.parent_object_id AND
C.column_id=D.parent_column_id AND
C.default_object_id=D.[object_id] LEFT JOIN
sys.extended_properties PFD ON PFD.class=1 AND
C.[object_id]=PFD.major_id AND C.column_id=PFD.minor_id — AND
PFD.name=’Caption’ —
字段说明对应的描述名称(一个字段可以添加多个不同name的描述) LEFT JOIN
sys.extended_properties PTB ON PTB.class=1 AND PTB.minor_id=0 AND
C.[object_id]=PTB.major_id — AND PFD.name=’Caption’ —
表说明对应的描述名称(一个表可以添加多个不同name的描述) LEFT JOIN —
索引及主键信息 ( SELECT IDXC.[object_id], IDXC.column_id, Sort=CASE
INDEXKEY_PROPERTY(IDXC.[object_id],IDXC.index_id,IDXC.index_column_id,’IsDescending’)
WHEN 1 THEN ‘DESC’ WHEN 0 THEN ‘ASC’ ELSE ” END, PrimaryKey=CASE WHEN
IDX.is_primary_key=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END, IndexName=IDX.Name FROM
sys.indexes IDX INNER JOIN sys.index_columns IDXC ON
IDX.[object_id]=IDXC.[object_id] AND IDX.index_id=IDXC.index_id
LEFT JOIN sys.key_constraints KC ON
IDX.[object_id]=KC.[parent_object_id] AND
IDX.index_id=KC.unique_index_id INNER JOIN —
对于一个列包含多个索引的情况,只显示第1个索引信息 ( SELECT
[object_id], Column_id, index_id=MIN(index_id) FROM
sys.index_columns GROUP BY [object_id], Column_id ) IDXCUQ ON
IDXC.[object_id]=IDXCUQ.[object_id] AND
IDXC.Column_id=IDXCUQ.Column_id AND IDXC.index_id=IDXCUQ.index_id )
IDX ON C.[object_id]=IDX.[object_id] AND
C.column_id=IDX.column_id — WHERE O.name=N’要查询的表’ —
如果只查询指定表,加上此条件 ORDER BY O.name,C.column_id

LEFT JOIN — 索引及主键信息
(
SELECT
IDXC.[object_id],
IDXC.column_id,
Sort=CASE
INDEXKEY_PROPERTY(IDXC.[object_id],IDXC.index_id,IDXC.index_column_id,’IsDescending’)
WHEN 1 THEN ‘DESC’ WHEN 0 THEN ‘ASC’ ELSE ” END,
PrimaryKey=CASE WHEN IDX.is_primary_key=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END,
IndexName=IDX.Name
FROM sys.indexes IDX
INNER JOIN sys.index_columns IDXC
ON IDX.[object_id]=IDXC.[object_id]
AND IDX.index_id=IDXC.index_id
LEFT JOIN sys.key_constraints KC
ON IDX.[object_id]=KC.[parent_object_id]
AND IDX.index_id=KC.unique_index_id
INNER JOIN — 对于一个列包含多个索引的情况,只显示第1个索引信息
(
SELECT [object_id], Column_id, index_id=MIN(index_id)
FROM sys.index_columns
GROUP BY [object_id], Column_id

–★★SQL2005索引及主键信息 :★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ —

) IDXCUQ
ON IDXC.[object_id]=IDXCUQ.[object_id]
AND IDXC.Column_id=IDXCUQ.Column_id
AND IDXC.index_id=IDXCUQ.index_id
) IDX
ON C.[object_id]=IDX.[object_id]
AND C.column_id=IDX.column_id

— 索引及主键信息 — 邹建 2005.08(引用请保留此信息) —

SELECT TableId=O.[object_id], TableName=O.Name,
IndexId=ISNULL(KC.[object_id],IDX.index_id), IndexName=IDX.Name,
IndexType=ISNULL(KC.type_desc,’Index’),
Index_Column_id=IDXC.index_column_id, ColumnID=C.Column_id,
ColumnName=C.Name, Sort=CASE
INDEXKEY_PROPERTY(IDXC.[object_id],IDXC.index_id,IDXC.index_column_id,’IsDescending’)
WHEN 1 THEN ‘DESC’ WHEN 0 THEN ‘ASC’ ELSE ” END, PrimaryKey=CASE WHEN
IDX.is_primary_key=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END, [UQIQUE]=CASE WHEN
IDX.is_unique=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END, Ignore_dup_key=CASE WHEN
IDX.ignore_dup_key=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END, Disabled=CASE WHEN
IDX.is_disabled=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END, Fill_factor=IDX.fill_factor,
Padded=CASE WHEN IDX.is_padded=1 THEN N’√’ELSE N” END FROM sys.indexes
IDX INNER JOIN sys.index_columns IDXC ON
IDX.[object_id]=IDXC.[object_id] AND IDX.index_id=IDXC.index_id
LEFT JOIN sys.key_constraints KC ON
IDX.[object_id]=KC.[parent_object_id] AND
IDX.index_id=KC.unique_index_id INNER JOIN sys.objects O ON
O.[object_id]=IDX.[object_id] INNER JOIN sys.columns C ON
O.[object_id]=C.[object_id] AND O.type=’U’ AND O.is_ms_shipped=0
AND IDXC.Column_id=C.Column_id –★★SQL
Server对大容量内存的支持:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ /*
32位操作系统有个很大的缺陷,应用程序无法访问大于4G的进程地址空间,因为32位的指针无法保存大于4G的地址空间
如果大于4G,则需要使用地址窗口化扩展插件(AWE),具体操作如下:
1,启动物理地址扩展 (1)找到C:\boot.ini,并删除其只读属性.
(2)编辑boot.ini,在ARC路径中添加/PAE参数.例如: 在windows Server 2003
Enterprise Edition 中,编辑后的ARC路径如下:
muti(0)disk(0)partition(1)windows=”windows Server 2003
Enterprise,Edition”/fastdetect/PAE
保存后将其恢复为只读模式,然后重新启动计算机。
如果计算机上的可用物理内存超过16G,应确保boot.ini文件中没有/3gb参数 */
–★★如何启动AWE选项:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ sp_configure’show advanced
options’,1 reconfigure go sp_configue ‘awe enabled’,1 reconfigure go
–★★手动配置内存选项:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ sp_configure’show advanced
options’,1 go reconfigure go sp_configure ‘min server memory’
–服务器最小内存 sp_configure ‘max server memory’ –服务器最大内存
sp_configure ‘index create memory’–创建索引占用的内存 sp_configure
‘min memory per query’–每次查询占用的最小内存
–★★获取磁盘读写情况:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ select @@total_read as
‘读取磁盘的次数’, @@total_write as ‘写入磁盘的次数’, @@total_error as
‘磁盘写入错误数’, getdate() as ‘当前时间’
–★★获取数据库文件的I/O统计信息:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ select * from
fn_virtualfilestats(null,null) –★★获取I/O工作情况:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★
select @@id_busy,–SQL自上次启动以来的用于执行输入和输出操作的时间
@@timeticks, –每个时钟周期对应的微秒数 @@id_busy*@@timeticks as ‘I/O
操作毫秒数’, getdate() as ‘当前时间’ –★★查看SQL SEVER
CPU活动,工作情况:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ select
@@cpu_busy,–自上次启动以来的工作时间 @@timeticks,
–每个时钟周期对应的微秒数 @@cpu_busy*cast(@@timeticks as float)/1000
as ‘cpu工作时间(秒)’, @@idie*cast(@@timeticks as float)/1000 as
‘CPU空闲时间(秒)’ getdate() as ‘当前时间’
–★★获取网络数据包统计信息:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ select getdate() as
‘当前时间’, @@pack_received as’输入数据包数量’, @@pack_sent as
‘输出数据包数量’, @@packet_error as ‘错误包数量’
–★★查看服务器工作状态:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ create function fgetsstatus(
@servername varchar(50) –服务器名 ,@userid varchar(50)=’sa’
–用户名,如果为nt验证方式,则为空 ,@password varchar(50)=” –密码 )
returns varchar(20) as begin declare @re varchar(20),@ire int –返回状态
declare @srvid int –定义服务器、数据库集id declare @err int,@src
varchar(255), @desc varchar(255) –错误处理变量 –★★创建sqldmo对象
:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ exec @err=sp_oacreate ‘sqldmo.sqlserver’,@srvid
output if @err 0 goto lberr –★★连接服务器 :★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ if
isnull(@userid,”)=” –如果是 Nt验证方式 begin exec
@err=sp_oasetproperty @srvid,’loginsecure’,1 if @err 0 goto lberr exec
@err=sp_oamethod @srvid,’connect’,null,@servername end else exec
@err=sp_oamethod @srvid,’connect’,null,@servername,@userid,@password if
@err 0 goto lberr –★★获取服务器状态 :★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ exec
@err=sp_oagetproperty @srvid,’Status’,@ire output if @err 0 goto lberr
set @re=case @ire when 0 then ‘未知’ when 1 then ‘运行…’ when 2 then
‘暂停’ when 3 then ‘停止…’ when 4 then ‘正在启动…’ when 5 then
‘正在启动停止…’ when 6 then ‘连接…’ when 7 then ‘正在暂停…’ end
return(@re) lberr: exec sp_oageterrorinfo NULL, @src out, @desc out
declare @errb varbinary(4) set @errb=cast(@err as varbinary(4)) exec
master..xp_varbintohexstr @errb,@re out set @re=’错误号: ‘+@re
+char(13)+’错误源: ‘+@src +char(13)+’错误描述: ‘+@desc return(@re) end
go select dbo.fgetsstatus(‘192.168.102.208′,’sa’,’sa’)
——————– –运行… –★★获取服务器状态 :★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ if
object_id(‘tb’)is not null drop table tb go create table tb( 表名
sysname, 记录数 int, 保留空间 nvarchar(10), 使用空间 varchar(10),
索引使用空间 varchar(10), 未用空间 varchar(10)) exec sp_MSForEachTable
@command1=N’insert tb exec sp_spaceused ”?”’ select * from tb
–★★查看服务器版本 :★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ SELECT
SERVERPROPERTY(‘productversion’), SERVERPROPERTY (‘productlevel’),
SERVERPROPERTY (‘edition’) –★★查看数据库脱机时间 :★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★
EXEC sp_configure ‘show advanced options’, 1 RECONFIGURE go EXEC
sp_configure ‘xp_cmdshell’, 1 RECONFIGURE GO select
a.name,a.database_id,a.create_date,b.physical_name into #a from
sys.databases a left join sys.master_files b on
a.database_id=b.database_id where has_dbaccess(a.name)1 and b.type=1
create table #b(info varchar(500)) declare @string varchar(max) set
@string=” select @string=@string+’insert into #b exec
xp_cmdshell”dir ‘+ physical_name +””+char(13)+char(10) from #a
execute(@string) select a.name,substring(b.info,0,20) as
脱机时间,a.database_id,a.create_date,a.physical_name from #a a left
join #b b on
REVERSE(substring(REVERSE(physical_name),0,charindex(‘\’,REVERSE(physical_name))))
=REVERSE(substring(REVERSE(info),0,charindex(‘ ‘,REVERSE(info)))) drop
table #a,#b go EXEC sp_configure ‘xp_cmdshell’, 0 RECONFIGURE go
EXEC sp_configure ‘show advanced options’, 0 RECONFIGURE go /* 1.
查看数据库的版本 select @@version 2.查看数据库所在机器操作系统参数 .
exec master..xp_msver .. 3. 查看数据库启动的参数 ! sp_configure
4.查看数据库启动时间 . select convert(varchar(30),login_time,120) from
master..sysprocesses where spid=1 查看数据库服务器名和实例名 . print
”Server Name……………: ” + convert(varchar(30),@@SERVERNAME) .
print ”Instance………………: ” +
convert(varchar(30),@@SERVICENAME) … 5. 查看所有数据库名称及大小
sp_helpdb 。 重命名数据库用的SQL sp_renamedb ”old_dbname”,
”new_dbname” 6. 查看所有数据库用户登录信息 .. sp_helplogins
查看所有数据库用户所属的角色信息 sp_helpsrvrolemember !
修复迁移服务器时孤立用户时,可以用的fix_orphan_user脚本或者LoneUser过程
. 更改某个数据对象的用户属主 sp_changeobjectowner [@objectname =]
”object”, [@newowner =] ”owner” . 注意:
更改对象名的任一部分都可能破坏脚本和存储过程。
把一台服务器上的数据库用户登录信息备份出来可以用add_login_to_aserver脚本

  1. 查看链接服务器 … sp_helplinkedsrvlogin 查看远端数据库用户登录信息
    。 sp_helpremotelogin .. 8.查看某数据库下某个数据对象的大小 !
    sp_spaceused @objname 还可以用sp_toptables过程看最大的N(默认为50) */
    –★★查看作业执行情况 :★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ select category = jc.name,
    category_id = jc.category_id, job_name = j.name, job_enabled =
    j.enabled, last_run_time = cast(js.last_run_date as varchar(10)) +
    ‘-‘ + cast(js.last_run_time as varchar(10)), last_run_duration =
    js.last_run_duration, last_run_status = js.last_run_outcome,
    last_run_msg = js.last_outcome_message +
    cast(nullif(js.last_run_outcome,1) as varchar(2)), job_created =
    j.date_created, job_modified = j.date_modified from msdb.dbo.sysjobs
    j inner join msdb.dbo.sysjobservers js on j.job_id = js.job_id inner
    join msdb.dbo.syscategories jc on j.category_id = jc.category_id where
    j.enabled = 1 and js.last_run_outcome in (0,1,3,5) — 0:Fail 1:Succ
    3:Cancel 5:First run and jc.category_id not between 10 and 20 — repl
    –★★查询数据库db中表tb的所有索引的随片情况 :★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ use db go
    select a.index_id,—索引编号 b.name,—索引名称
    avg_fragmentation_in_percent—索引的逻辑碎片 from
    sys.dm_db_indx_physical_stats(db_id(),object_id(N’create.consume’),null,null,null)
    as a join sys.indexes as b on a.object_id=b.object_id and
    a.index_id=b.index_id go –★★用户成员权限:★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★ USE pubs
    –创建角色 r_test EXEC sp_addrole ‘r_test’ –授予 r_test 对 jobs
    表的所有权限 GRANT ALL ON jobs TO r_test –授予角色 r_test 对 titles
    表的 SELECT 权限 GRANT SELECT ON titles TO r_test –添加登录
    l_test,设置密码为pwd,默认数据库为pubs EXEC sp_addlogin
    ‘l_test’,’pwd’,’pubs’ –为登录 l_test 在数据库 pubs 中添加安全账户
    u_test EXEC sp_grantdbaccess ‘l_test’,’u_test’ –添加 u_test 为角色
    r_test 的成员 EXEC sp_addrolemember ‘r_test’,’u_test’ –拒绝安全账户
    u_test 对 titles 表的 SELECT 权限 DENY SELECT ON titles TO u_test
    /*–完成上述步骤后,用 l_test
    登录,可以对jobs表进行所有操作,但无法对titles表查询,虽然角色 r_test
    有titles表的select权限,但已经在安全账户中明确拒绝了对titles的select权限,所以l_test无titles表的select权限–*/
    –从数据库 pubs 中删除安全账户 EXEC sp_revokedbaccess ‘u_test’
    –删除登录 l_test EXEC sp_droplogin ‘l_test’ –删除角色 r_test EXEC
    sp_droprole ‘r_test’ 12阅读全文

–WHERE O.name=N’customer’ — 如果只查询指定表,加上此条件
ORDER BY O.name,C.column_id

——Sql2000版本