[转载]oracle常用经典SQL查询

1.想要在命令提示符下操作mysql服务器,添加系统变量。
2.查询数据表中的数据; select selection_list select * /columns from
table_list from table1/table2 where primary_constraint group by
grouping_columns order by sorting_colomns desc降序 select * from
table order by id desc; having second_constraint limit count select *
from table where id limit 1,4; 2
常用的统计函数:avg(字段),sum(字段),count(字段),min(字段), select
sum(字段2) as 别名 ,字段1 from table group by 字段1; 3
算数运算,字符串,以及逻辑运算构造表达式:select * (price*0.8) as
‘80%’ from table;打八折

原文地址:oracle常用经典SQL查询作者:来者

oracle常用经典SQL查询

1、查看表空间的名称及大小 

select t.tablespace_name,
round(sum(bytes/(1024*1024)),0) ts_size from dba_tablespaces
t, dba_data_files d where t.tablespace_name =
d.tablespace_name group by t.tablespace_name;

 

2、查看表空间物理文件的名称及大小 

select tablespace_name, file_id,
file_name,round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space from
dba_data_files order by tablespace_name;

 

3、查看回滚段名称及大小

select segment_name, tablespace_name,
r.status,(initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024)
NextExtent,max_extents, v.curext CurExtent From dba_rollback_segs r,
v$rollstat v Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+) order by segment_name;

 

4、查看控制文件

select name from v$controlfile;

 

5、查看日志文件

select member from v$logfile;

 

6、查看表空间的使用情况

select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as
free_space,tablespace_name from dba_free_space group by
tablespace_name;

 

SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED,
C.BYTES FREE,(B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES “%
USED”,(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES “% FREE” FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL
A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C WHERE
A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND
A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME;

 

7、查看数据库库对象

select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count#
from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;

 

8、查看数据库的版本 

Select version FROM
Product_component_version Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)=’Oracle’;

 

9、查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式

Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From
V$Database;

 

10、捕捉运行很久的SQL

column username format a12

column opname format a16

column progress format a8

select username,sid,opname,round(sofar*100 /
totalwork,0) || ‘%’ as progress,time_remaining,sql_text from
v$session_longops , v$sql where time_remaining <> 0 and
sql_address = address and sql_hash_value = hash_value

11.查看数据表的参数信息

SELECT   partition_name, high_value,
high_value_length, tablespace_name,pct_free, pct_used,
ini_trans, max_trans, initial_extent, next_extent, min_extent,
max_extent, pct_increase, FREELISTS, freelist_groups, LOGGING,
BUFFER_POOL, num_rows, blocks, empty_blocks, avg_space, chain_cnt,
avg_row_len, sample_size, last_analyzed FROM
dba_tab_partitions WHERE table_name = :tname AND table_owner =
:towner ORDER BY partition_position

 

12.查看还没提交的事务

select * from v$locked_object;

select * from v$transaction;

 

13.查找object为哪些进程所用

select p.spid,s.sid,s.serial#
serial_num,s.username user_name,a.type  object_type,s.osuser
os_user_name,a.owner,a.object object_name,decode(sign(48 –
command),1,to_char(command), ‘Action Code #’ || to_char(command) )
action,p.program oracle_process,s.terminal terminal,s.program
program,s.status session_status  from v$session s, v$access a,
v$process p  where s.paddr = p.addr and s.type = ‘USER’ and    a.sid =
s.sid  and a.object=’SUBSCRIBER_ATTR’ order by s.username, s.osuser

 

14。回滚段查看

select rownum, sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name
Name, v$rollstat.extents

Extents, v$rollstat.rssize Size_in_Bytes,
v$rollstat.xacts XActs,

v$rollstat.gets Gets, v$rollstat.waits Waits,
v$rollstat.writes Writes,

sys.dba_rollback_segs.status status from
v$rollstat, sys.dba_rollback_segs,

v$rollname where v$rollname.name(+) =
sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name and

v$rollstat.usn (+) = v$rollname.usn order by
rownum

 

15。耗资源的进程(top
session)

select s.schemaname schema_name,    decode(sign(48 –
command), 1,

to_char(command), ‘Action Code #’ ||
to_char(command) ) action,    status

session_status,   s.osuser os_user_name,  
s.sid,         p.spid ,         s.serial# serial_num,  

nvl(s.username, ‘[Oracle process]’) user_name,  
s.terminal terminal,    

s.program program,   st.value criteria_value  from
v$sesstat st,   v$session s  , v$process p  

where st.sid = s.sid and   st.statistic# =
to_number(’38’) and   (‘ALL’ = ‘ALL’

or s.status = ‘ALL’) and p.addr = s.paddr order by
st.value desc,  p.spid asc, s.username asc, s.osuser asc

 

16。查看锁(lock)情况

select ls.osuser os_user_name,   ls.username
user_name,  

decode(ls.type, ‘RW’, ‘Row wait enqueue lock’, ‘TM’,
‘DML enqueue lock’, ‘TX’,

‘Transaction enqueue lock’, ‘UL’, ‘User supplied
lock’) lock_type,  

o.object_name object,   decode(ls.lmode, 1, null, 2,
‘Row Share’, 3,

‘Row Exclusive’, 4, ‘Share’, 5, ‘Share Row
Exclusive’, 6, ‘Exclusive’, null)

lock_mode,    o.owner,   ls.sid,   ls.serial#
serial_num,   ls.id1,   ls.id2   

from sys.dba_objects o, (   select s.osuser,   
s.username,    l.type,    

l.lmode,    s.sid,    s.serial#,    l.id1,   
l.id2   from v$session s,    

v$lock l   where s.sid = l.sid ) ls  where
o.object_id = ls.id1 and    o.owner

<> ‘SYS’   order by o.owner,
o.object_name

 

17。查看等待(wait)情况

SELECT v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count count,
SUM(v$sysstat.value) sum_value

FROM v$waitstat, v$sysstat WHERE v$sysstat.name IN
(‘db block gets’,

‘consistent gets’) group by v$waitstat.class,
v$waitstat.count

 

18。查看sga情况

SELECT NAME, BYTES FROM SYS.V_$SGASTAT ORDER BY NAME
ASC

 

19。查看catched
object

SELECT owner,              name,             
db_link,              namespace, 

           type,             
sharable_mem,              loads,              executions,  

          locks,              pins,             
kept        FROM v$db_object_cache

         

20。查看V$SQLAREA

SELECT SQL_TEXT, SHARABLE_MEM, PERSISTENT_MEM,
RUNTIME_MEM, SORTS,

VERSION_COUNT, LOADED_VERSIONS, OPEN_VERSIONS,
USERS_OPENING, EXECUTIONS,

USERS_EXECUTING, LOADS, FIRST_LOAD_TIME,
INVALIDATIONS, PARSE_CALLS, DISK_READS,

BUFFER_GETS, ROWS_PROCESSED FROM V$SQLAREA

 

21。查看object分类数量

select decode (o.type#,1,’INDEX’ , 2,’TABLE’ , 3 ,
‘CLUSTER’ , 4, ‘VIEW’ , 5 ,

‘SYNONYM’ , 6 , ‘SEQUENCE’ , ‘OTHER’ ) object_type ,
count(*) quantity from

sys.obj$ o where o.type# > 1 group by decode
(o.type#,1,’INDEX’ , 2,’TABLE’ , 3

, ‘CLUSTER’ , 4, ‘VIEW’ , 5 , ‘SYNONYM’ , 6 ,
‘SEQUENCE’ , ‘OTHER’ ) union select

‘COLUMN’ , count(*) from sys.col$ union select ‘DB
LINK’ , count(*) from

 

22。按用户查看object种类

select u.name schema,   sum(decode(o.type#, 1, 1,
NULL)) indexes,  

sum(decode(o.type#, 2, 1, NULL)) tables,  
sum(decode(o.type#, 3, 1, NULL))

clusters,   sum(decode(o.type#, 4, 1, NULL))
views,   sum(decode(o.type#, 5, 1,

NULL)) synonyms,   sum(decode(o.type#, 6, 1, NULL))
sequences,  

sum(decode(o.type#, 1, NULL, 2, NULL, 3, NULL, 4,
NULL, 5, NULL, 6, NULL, 1))

others   from sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u   where
o.type# >= 1 and    u.user# =

o.owner# and   u.name <> ‘PUBLIC’   group by
u.name    order by

sys.link$ union select ‘CONSTRAINT’ , count(*) from
sys.con$

 

23。有关connection的相关信息

1)查看有哪些用户连接

select s.osuser os_user_name,    decode(sign(48 –
command), 1, to_char(command),

‘Action Code #’ || to_char(command) ) action,    
p.program oracle_process,    

status session_status,    s.terminal terminal,   
s.program program,   

s.username user_name,    s.fixed_table_sequence
activity_meter,    ” query,   

0 memory,    0 max_memory,     0 cpu_usage,   
s.sid,   s.serial# serial_num   

from v$session s,    v$process p   where
s.paddr=p.addr and    s.type = ‘USER’ 

order by s.username, s.osuser

2)根据v.sid查看对应连接的资源占用等情况

select n.name,

 v.value,

 n.class,

 n.statistic# 

from  v$statname n,

 v$sesstat v

where v.sid = 71 and

 v.statistic# = n.statistic#

order by n.class, n.statistic#

3)根据sid查看对应连接正在运行的sql

select

 command_type,

 sql_text,

 sharable_mem,

 persistent_mem,

 runtime_mem,

 sorts,

 version_count,

 loaded_versions,

 open_versions,

 users_opening,

 executions,

 users_executing,

 loads,

 first_load_time,

 invalidations,

 parse_calls,

 disk_reads,

 buffer_gets,

 rows_processed,

 sysdate start_time,

 sysdate finish_time,

 ‘>’ || address sql_address,

 ‘N’ status

from v$sqlarea

where address = (select sql_address from v$session
where sid = 71)

 

24.查询表空间使用情况

select a.tablespace_name “表空间名称”,

100-round((nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/a.bytes_alloc)*100,2)
“占用率(%)”,

round(a.bytes_alloc/1024/1024,2) “容量(M)”,

round(nvl(b.bytes_free,0)/1024/1024,2) “空闲(M)”,

round((a.bytes_alloc-nvl(b.bytes_free,0))/1024/1024,2)
“使用(M)”,

Largest “最大扩展段(M)”,

to_char(sysdate,’yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss’)
“采样时间”

from  (select f.tablespace_name,

   sum(f.bytes) bytes_alloc,

  
sum(decode(f.autoextensible,’YES’,f.maxbytes,’NO’,f.bytes))
maxbytes

from dba_data_files f

group by tablespace_name) a,

(select  f.tablespace_name,

    sum(f.bytes) bytes_free

from dba_free_space f

group by tablespace_name) b,

(select round(max(ff.length)*16/1024,2)
Largest,

   ts.name tablespace_name

from sys.fet$ ff, sys.file$ tf,sys.ts$ ts

where ts.ts#=ff.ts# and ff.file#=tf.relfile# and
ts.ts#=tf.ts#

group by ts.name, tf.blocks) c

where a.tablespace_name = b.tablespace_name and
a.tablespace_name = c.tablespace_name

 

  1. 查询表空间的碎片程度

 

select tablespace_name,count(tablespace_name) from
dba_free_space group by tablespace_name

having count(tablespace_name)>10;

 

alter tablespace name coalesce;

alter table name deallocate unused;

 

create or replace view ts_blocks_v as

select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,’free
space’ segment_name from dba_free_space

union all

select
tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,segment_name from
dba_extents;

 

select * from ts_blocks_v;

 

select
tablespace_name,sum(bytes),max(bytes),count(block_id) from
dba_free_space

group by tablespace_name;

 

26。查询有哪些数据库实例在运行

select inst_name from v$active_instances;

 

===========================================================

######### 创建数据库—-look
$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/buildall.sql #############

 

create database db01

maxlogfiles 10

maxdatafiles 1024

maxinstances 2

logfile

GROUP 1 (‘/u01/oradata/db01/log_01_db01.rdo’) SIZE
15M,

GROUP 2 (‘/u01/oradata/db01/log_02_db01.rdo’) SIZE
15M,

GROUP 3 (‘/u01/oradata/db01/log_03_db01.rdo’) SIZE
15M,

datafile ‘u01/oradata/db01/system_01_db01.dbf’)
SIZE 100M,

undo tablespace UNDO

datafile ‘/u01/oradata/db01/undo_01_db01.dbf’ SIZE
40M

default temporary tablespace TEMP

tempfile ‘/u01/oradata/db01/temp_01_db01.dbf’ SIZE
20M

extent management local uniform size 128k

character set AL32UTE8

national character set AL16UTF16

set time_zone=’America/New_York’;

 

############### 数据字典##########

 

set wrap off

 

select * from v$dba_users;

 

grant select on table_name to user/rule;

 

select * from user_tables;

 

select * from all_tables;

 

select * from dba_tables;

 

revoke dba from user_name;

 

shutdown immediate

 

startup nomount

 

select * from v$instance;

 

select * from v$sga;

 

select * from v$tablespace;

 

alter session set nls_language=american;

 

alter database mount;

 

select * from v$database;

 

alter database open;

 

desc dictionary

 

select * from dict;

 

desc v$fixed_table;

 

select * from v$fixed_table;

 

set oracle_sid=foxconn

 

select * from dba_objects;

 

set serveroutput on

 

execute dbms_output.put_line(‘sfasd’);

 

############# 控制文件###########

 

select * from v$database;

 

select * from v$tablespace;

 

select * from v$logfile;

 

select * from v$log;

 

select * from v$backup;

 

 

alter tablespace users begin backup;

 

select * from v$archived_log;

 

select * from v$controlfile;

 

alter system set
control_files=’$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl’,

‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl’
scope=spfile;

 

cp $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl
$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl

 

startup pfile=’../initSID.ora’

 

select * from v$parameter where name like ‘control%’
;

 

show parameter control;

 

select * from v$controlfile_record_section;

 

select * from v$tempfile;

 

 

alter database backup controlfile to
‘../filepath/control.bak’;

 

 

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

 

############### redo log
##############

 

archive log list;

 

alter system archive log start;–启动自动存档

 

alter system switch logfile;–强行进行一次日志switch

 

alter system checkpoint;–强制进行一次checkpoint

 

alter tablspace users begin backup;

 

alter tablespace offline;

 

 

show parameter fast;

 

show parameter log_checkpoint;

 

 

alter database add logfile group 3
(‘/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’ size 10M);

 

 

alter database add logfile member
‘/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’ to group 3;

 

 

alter database drop logfile group 3;

 

 

alter databse drop logfile member
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’;

 

 

alter database clear logfile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’;

 

alter database clear logfile group 3;

 

 

alter database clear unarchived logfile group
3;

 

 

alter database rename file
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo’ to
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6a.rdo’;

 

show parameter db_create;

 

alter system set
db_create_online_log_dest_1=’path_name’;

 

select * from v$log;

 

select * from v$logfile;

 

 

alter database noarchivelog/archivelog;

 

achive log start;—启动自动归档

 

alter system archive all;--手工归档所有日志文件

 

select * from v$archived_log;

 

show parameter log_archive;

 

######
分析日志文件logmnr
##############

 

1)
在init.ora中set
utl_file_dir 参数

2)
重新启动oracle

3) create
目录文件

desc dbms_logmnr_d;

dbms_logmnr_d.build;

4)
加入日志文件 add/remove log file

dhms_logmnr.add_logfile

dbms_logmnr.removefile

5) start logmnr

dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr

6)
分析出来的内容查询 v$logmnr_content
–sqlredo/sqlundo

 

实践:

 

desc dbms_logmnr_d;

 

 

update
表 set qty=10 where stor_id=6380;

 

delete
表 where stor_id=7066;

 

utl_file_dir的路径

execute
dbms_logmnr_d.build(‘foxdict.ora’,’$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump’);

 

execute
dbms_logmnr.add_logfile(‘$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.log’,dbms_logmnr.newfile);

 

execute
dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>’$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump/foxdict.ora’);

 

######### tablespace
##############

 

select * form v$tablespace;

 

select * from v$datafile;

 

 

select t1.name,t2.name from v$tablespace
t1,v$datafile t2 where t1.ts#=t2.ts#;

 

alter tablespace users add datafile ‘path’ size
10M;

 

select * from dba_rollback_segs;

 

 

alter user user_name quota 10m on
tablespace_name;

 

create tablespace xxx [datafile
‘path_name/datafile_name’] [size xxx] [extent management
local/dictionary] [default storage(xxx)];

 

exmple: create tablespace userdata datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5M
MAXSIZE 200M;

create tablespace userdata datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M extent management
dictionary default storage(initial 100k next 100k pctincrease 10)
offline;

 

create tablespace userdata datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M extent management local
uniform size 1m;

create tablespace userdata datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M extent management local
autoallocate;

 

create tablespace userdata datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf’ size 100M extent management local
uniform size 1m segment space management auto;

 

alter tablespace userdata mininum extent 10;

 

alter tablespace userdata default storage(initial 1m
next 1m pctincrease 20);

 

 

create undo tablespace undo1 datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf’ size 40M extent management
local;

 

show parameter undo;

 

 

create temporary tablespace userdata tempfile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf’ size 10m extent management
local;

 

 

alter database default temporary tablespace
tablespace_name;

 

 

alter tablespace tablespace_name
offline/online;

 

alter tablespace tablespace_name read only;

 

 

alter tablespace tablespace_name rename datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf’ to
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’;

 

 

alter database rename file
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system01.dbf’ to
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system02.dbf’;

 

drop tablespace userdata including contents and
datafiles;—drop tablespce

 

 

alter database datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’ autoextend on next 10m maxsize
500M;

 

 

alter database datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’ resize 50m;

 

 

alter tablespace userdata add datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’ size 10m;

 

 

alter system set
db_create_file_dest=’$ORACLE_HOME/oradata’;

 

create tablespace userdata;—use OMF status to
create tablespace;

 

drop tablespace userdata;—user OMF status to drop
tablespace;

 

select * from
dba_tablespace/v$tablespace/dba_data_files;

 

 

alter table table_name move partition
partition_name tablespace tablespace_name;

 

###### ORACLE storage structure and
relationships #########

 

 

alter table kong.test12 allocate extent(size 1m
datafile ‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’);

 

alter table kong.test12 deallocate unused;
—释放表中没有用到的分区

 

show parameter db;

 

alter system set db_8k_cache_size=10m;
—配置8k块的内存空间块参数

 

select * from
dba_extents/dba_segments/data_tablespace;

 

select * from
dba_free_space/dba_data_file/data_tablespace;

 

 

select sum(bytes) from dba_extents where
onwer=’kong’ and segment_name =’table_name’;

 

############ UNDO Data
################

 

show parameter undo;

 

alter tablespace users offline normal;

 

alter tablespace users offline immediate;

 

recover datafile
‘$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf’;

 

alter tablespace users online ;

 

select * from dba_rollback_segs;

 

alter system set undo_tablespace=undotbs1;

 

 

alter system set undo_suppress_errors=true;

 

 

create rollback segment rbs1 tablespace
undotbs;

 

desc dbms_flashback;

 

 

execute
dbms_flashback.enable_at_time(’26-JAN-04:12:17:00 pm’);

 

execute dbms_flashback.disable;

 

 

select end_time,begin_time,undoblks from
v$undostat;

 

 

 

select * from
dba_rollback_segs/v$rollname/v$rollstat/v$undostat/v$session/v$transaction;